They are given names, just like to people. Many of them have their own history, full of such events as you can write novels. Some of them even have their own glorious ancestors and offspring. Only they live much longer than people and never get old. Of course, it will be about rough diamond.
According to an old legend, the diamond was created by the God of Mines who rubbed in the dust on one gem of each type and color and connected them to a new crystal. The resulting stone was bright as ice and transparent as a tear. But in the sun it displayed all the colors of precious stones, of which has been created.
A Journey to History
The earliest mentions of rough diamond belong to 1200 BC. At that time, the stone was used as a magic talisman. The mineral name comes from the Greek “adamas”, which means “invincible”, “indestructible”. Apparently, the stone earned that name thanks to its exceptional hardness. People believed that the diamond is able to give to a man the same hardness and invincibility. Therefore the stone was soldiers’ mascot for centuries. Weapons and scabbard were decorated with it. Even in those days diamonds were expensive; therefore not everyone could afford such a talisman.
Ancient people believed rough diamond as God’s tears. In this connection the stone was ascribed properties such as innocence and purity.
This mineral symbolized the monarchy and the supreme power in many countries, so ordinary people were forbidden to wear it.
In ancient Rome only patricians could wear diamonds.
Urban residents were not allowed to have jewelry with this stone in Spain and England until the second half of the XIV century.
Masters failed to process the hardest mineral for a long time. The first jeweler, who was lucky in this field, was Louis de Burke. It happened in 1456. He served Duke of Burgundy – Charles the Bold. They say that when the Duke saw diamond, he was blinded by its beauty and ordered the stone to decorate his battle suit. Duke decided that crystal shine would dazzle and frighten enemies.
Russian rulers also had a lot of rough diamonds. Until now, you can admire the Grand Imperial crown, the Boris Godunov’s throne, as well as the famous diamond “Shah” and “Orlov” at the halls of the Diamond Fund. And the Count Potemkin had a hat that was impossible to wear because of the large weight of diamonds adorning it.
There was a belief from Arab countries that country would win of the two warring parties which had a heavier diamond. Napoleon believed in that. Hilt of his sword was adorned with one of the most famous diamonds in the world – Regent.
By the way, as a stone for women’s jewelry, diamonds began to be used only in the middle of the XV century. This happened thanks to the mistress of the French King Charles VII – Agnes Sorel. Around the same period, precious stones began to get names.
Rough diamond or diamond gets the name, if its weight is more than 50 carats. Moreover, a large rough diamond may have one name and obtained from it diamonds – another name. But the story still keeps the memory of sawn diamonds.
King of France Louis XIV’s ceremonial costume was decorated with faceted diamonds, worth about 12 million francs.
Until the second quarter of XVIII century the only place of diamond mining was an Indian Sultanate Golokonda. But the stone was found in Brazil in 1725 and until the second half of the XIX century (until mines in Africa was opened), the Brazilians took the lead in the global market.
In Yakutia in 1954 was discovered the first kimberlite pipe located outside of the African continent. Subsequently, there were found two more in the territory of Russia. Thus, the diamond deposits in Russia were no less rich than African.
In recent years, the market leader of rough diamond production is Botswana.
What is rough diamond?
Diamond valuation depends on its weight, color, clarity and cut. Rough diamond consists of pure carbon – a fundamental element of life. Occasionally it may occur impurity silicon or iron, but do not exceed 5%. This is the only mineral, having a hardness of 10 points on the Mohs scale.
The stone crystallizes from coal in the depths of the earth’s crust under the influence of intense heat and pressure. In the middle of the XX century, scientists discovered that the transformation of graphite into smaller diamonds requires pressure of 100 thousand atmospheres, the temperature of 2000 degrees and the complete absence of oxygen. Under these conditions it will take several hours for the transformation of graphite into a gem. However, the weight of obtained crystals is usually not exceed 1/10 carat. But such diamonds are widely used in industry.
Despite its hardness, rough diamond is very brittle mineral. It’s very easy to crack or break it. At the end of the XV century during the war between King Louis XI and Duke Charles the Bold, who had a very impressive collection of diamonds, royal soldiers – mercenaries stormed the Duke’s tent. Seeing the sparkling and shimmering diamonds, they decided to check their authenticity. For these purposes, the soldiers began pounding on the stones with a hammer. Diamonds scattered by heavy blows. So Swiss mercenaries ruined several fine quality gemstones, but decided that they were fake.
In addition, rough diamond can be burned in the fire. This diamond property was discovered during the experiment by Italian scientists who wanted to fuse several small stones into one large.
Rough diamonds were mined from placers for many centuries. But at the end of the nineteenth century kimberlite pipes were discovered – vents of very ancient and long extinct volcanoes. It turned out that they originally formed diamonds.
There are different varieties of rough diamond: yellow, blue, green, pink, black and smoky. Pure diamond is considered colorless stone, because it does not contain anything other than carbon, and its crystal lattice is perfect in its structure.
Yellow and smoky diamonds also don’t incorporate foreign elements, but their atomic structure is different from that is intrinsic to colorless stones. This is the reason of changing color by these stones.
Diamond crystals are rather inconspicuous in nature, and only after cutting the stone acquires its true beauty. Jewelers liked faceted diamonds thanks to their unique ability to refract light and separate it into colors.
Some diamonds might be sanded and treated for years. Thus the stone lost more than half of its original weight. This, as well as the amazing beauty and rarity of large crystals, explains the high price of diamonds.
The largest diamond size ever found was named “Cullinan”. Its weight was 1.37 lb (621.2 g) , which was slightly more than 3,100 carats. It was discovered in South Africa in 1905. From this diamond were turned 106 adamants. The largest of them is “Star of Africa” weighs 530 carats.
It should be said that only a fifth of all the world’s mined stones is used in jewelry. The rest of the diamonds go to the industrial needs. There are cutters for glass made of them; they cover drills and grinding tools. They are used in the manufacture of equipment for drilling wells and mines.
How to Authenticate diamond?
To recognize the real gem you can by means of a sharpened aluminum stick . To do this, you need to moisten slightly the stone with water and hold on it an aluminum rod. A silvery trail will have to remain if it is a forgery. The real diamond will be clean.
Everyone knows that the natural rough diamond can cut glass or, at least, to leave a scratch on it. However, this method does not give absolute certainty since besides natural diamond there are minerals that are harder than glass.
There are a couple of simple ways for faceted diamonds to determine the naturalness.
Natural rough diamond is completely transparent. Therefore, if you omit it in the water it will become invisible. Artificial stones do not possess this quality.
Also you can just breathe on the stone. If there is a natural diamond in front of you – it does not mist over.
But best of all, of course, trust the experts and purchase those products for which there is a certificate of stone authenticity.
Diamond Energy Properties
Magical properties of diamond are wide and varied. But this stone is not for everyone, because rough diamond energy is very powerful, and the nature of the stones, especially large ones, is quite difficult. The greater the weight of the stone, the more it is capricious. History knows many examples when the possession of large diamonds did not bring nothing but misery and unhappiness. Therefore, as a mascot would be the best small crystals. Therefore, small crystals would be the best talisman.
At all times, diamond was considered a symbol of innocence and purity. Hence there gone belief that criminals and people with evil intentions couldn’t wear this stone because it would oppose and revenge them.
For a long time it considered exclusively male diamond gem. When this stereotype was destroyed, there was a belief that only mature women could wear the crystal. This is attributed to the fact that the gem is able to slow the aging process.
In addition, diamonds do not like impulsiveness and rash decisions. These qualities are so typically of youth. But it will be an excellent amulet for a person who is capable of deliberate actions and has established views on life.
Diamond is a symbol of wealth, accumulation and manifestation of abundance. It is also an ideal stone for an ascetic who renounced wealth choosing this mineral as an object for the diligent contemplation and deep meditation. The fact that a diamond must undergo cutting in order to show their beauty can be compared with the inner, spiritual beauty of a person. It is believed that the stone helps to open and strengthen the best character traits of a person who to strives for self-development. Due to this property, diamond is often used for meditation. At the same time they are usually placed on a parietal chakra, in the third eye, or over the heart. They are able to provide answers to questions that relate to decision-making or self-development. But when it comes to personal relationships, rough diamond is not the adviser. These stones, though considered a talisman of love, will not help in meditation on this topic.
Diamond is able to absorb and amplify any owner’s thoughts when it is with him. Therefore it is recommended to wear a stone only in a good mood and think about positive things. Because otherwise there is a risk that the mascot of the mineral become a cursed object and stops to bring good luck to the owner. But this stone has the property to raise the mood when you look at it. Mere contemplation stone is capable to calm and soothe the melancholy thoughts.
Magical properties of rough diamond increase, if it is in a frame of gold. In this frame should allow the stone to be in contact with the skin.
It is worth noting that as a mascot the stone can be used only being presented or received in the inheritance. Purchased stones don’t attract good luck. And the stolen diamonds bring to the owner only troubles.
To disclose their magical properties, diamonds need to “get used” to the owner. If you purchased the stone, then it might take years. At the same time wearing diamonds too often is not recommended. In order to establish contact with the stone, praise it and admire its beauty.
You can do this mentally, the most important to stay in a quiet mood. Nothing should bother your contact with the stone.
You should wear diamond jewelry as an amulet around the neck or on the left arm. It is believed that in this way its power is manifested better.
Diamond Healing Properties
It is believed that the owner of rough diamond always has a good memory. This will not prevent even aging; because diamond helps older people to feel younger and returns them vitality. For these purposes the stone is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
This gem is credited with properties such as improved metabolism, ability to strengthen the heart and blood vessels, as well as to prevent the formation of kidney stones and liver.
Moreover, it absorbs well electromagnetic radiation.
In the east, people used the water in which rough diamond spent night to struggle with fatigue. This infusion provided a surge of vitality.
This stone was used to combat inflammation and infection. It is believed that the diamond may relieve high temperature. Also this mineral is good in treating skin diseases.
Diamonds of green hue considered a talisman for childbirth.
In this case, diamonds heal not only the body but the soul. These stones are used as assistants in the treatment of nervous and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia or depression.
Diamond and Signs of the Zodiac
The Bible says about this stone it was the first gem in Aaron the High Priest’s efude. As the stones were just 12, then later they became to be associated with the Apostles, then the month and after with signs of the zodiac. So, diamond starts the zodiacal circle. Therefore, rough diamond becomes a perfect mascot for those who were born under the sign of Aries. In addition, it is believed that two other fire signs of the Zodiac – Sagittarius and Leo can also enjoy the favor of the stone.